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CGS debates libertarian bioethicist Ronald Green

Posted by Osagie Obasogie on April 14th, 2008

In a recent Washington Post commentary, Dartmouth ethicist Ronald Green advocates everything from designer babies to human reproductive cloning. On Tuesday, CGS' Richard Hayes and Marcy Darnovsky will give their take on these matters. Hayes' commentary will be posted in the Outlook section of the Washington Post's website; Darnovsky will discuss the issues with Green on NPR's Talk of the Nation. (11 am Pacific / 2 pm Eastern)

Updates: Richard's article is now online at the Washington Post website. Listen to Marcy at Talk of the Nation [MP3].

Immortality breakthrough! Read all about it!

Posted by Marcy Darnovsky on April 14th, 2008

Every once in a while I check to see what's new with the transhumanists, that strange bunch of guys (and a few gals) who stump for the End of Humanity As We Know It. What caught my eye this time was George Dvorsky's recent piece called "Eight tips to dramatically improve your chances of living forever."

Transhumanists, for those who haven't stumbled across them, want to use genetic engineering, nanotech robots, neural interfaces with computers, and other ultra-tech gizmos to produce what they variously call "posthumanity" and "homo perfectus."

One core transhumanist come-on - in fact, the very first plank of "The Transhumanist Declaration" - is "redesigning the human condition" so as to banish aging. Transhumanists talk about "extreme longevity" and "radical life extension." More than a few believe that technology-enabled immortality is just around the corner. For those of us alive today, they say, the trick is to hang on long enough for the rapture - oops, I mean "longevity escape velocity."

Okay, it's silly. But given their aspirations, you'd expect the transhumanists to have some exceptional insights into staying healthy and hale. So it was with a bit of eagerness - I admit it - that I clicked to see the list.

And now, without further ado - drum roll - here's tip number one: Eat your fruits and veggies.

Tip number two: Avoid sodas and chips.

Other radical advice includes wearing your seatbelt and getting plenty of exercise.

To be fair, there are several hints unique to transhumanism. Tip number seven: send us money. And, tip number eight, just in case all of the above doesn't work: Freeze your head. Helpfully, Dvorsky includes links to the websites of two cryogenics companies.

The punch line to this one? "And they lived happily ever after."

The Many Hats of Robert Klein

Posted by Jesse Reynolds on April 11th, 2008

In many ways, this weekend's stem cell research advocacy gathering in San Francisco is unremarkable. Many of the same speakers can be found at similar meetings and mini-conventions several times each year. But this one is staged by Americans for Cures, led by Robert Klein, who is also the head of California's multi-billion dollar stem cell research agency. Not only is he juggling two incompatible roles - stem cell booster and public servant - but under his guidance, his advocacy organization has attacked his political opponents, praised his own work, and spread misleading information.

To call Klein a "stem cell czar" is easy, perhaps even modest. He was the primary author of the ballot initiative that created the agency (and insulated it from most public oversight and accountability). He was the chair of the campaign for the initiative’s passage, as well as the campaign’s largest donor. After its passage, Klein was unanimously nominated to chair the board of the new agency, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM). In fact, the requirements for the job that he wrote into the law fit his own experience so closely that few other Californians could even have qualified for consideration.

After the ballot measure passed in November 2004, Klein tried to wear both hats, those of booster and of public servant. The initiative campaign transformed into the advocacy group California Research and Cures Coalition, which remained headed by Klein and operated out of his business office in Palo Alto. In response to public criticism, he quickly resigned from the organization.

But Klein couldn't resist politicking for his cause. In 2006, a new group appeared, Americans for Stem Cell Therapies and Cures, with Klein again at the helm. Its first action was to issue a public letter smearing Sen. Deborah Ortiz (D-Sacramento) on the eve of her primary election for Secretary of State. She had been the most vocal supporter of the stem cell initiative in the state house, but was now backing legislation to reform the agency. As a taxable lobbying group, Klein's outfit raised also raised money for his political allies in the fall 2006 general election.

Now, Americans for Cures has assumed the mantle of both the California Research and Cures Coalition and Americans for Stem Cell Therapies and Cures. Two months ago, it issued a press release backing one of Klein's pet projects at the CIRM. What's more, it is extensively downplaying the potential of a new alternative to the use of embryos in stem cell research - an alternative whose ascendance would call into question the relevancy of CIRM and its use of taxpayer dollars during a time of budget crunching.   

To top it off, the group is exaggerating the state of cloning-based stem cell research, implying inaccurately that stem cells have already been derived via this technique. Some tidbits from its website:

A research process called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), sometimes referred to as "therapeutic cloning", allows scientists to produce embryonic stem cells without using sperm to fertilize an egg.
Embryonic stem cell research utilizes a process called therapeutic cloning, or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), to copy cells with the goal of making stem cells to better treat and cure people with serious diseases and injuries. Using SCNT, scientists can produce embryonic stem cells without using sperm to fertilize an egg.
Patient Specific Stem Cells [glossary entry]: Stem cell lines, developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), that match a patient. These cells could be useful as therapeutics to replace disease tissues or, in the case of cells from someone with a genetic disease, to study how the disease occurs.
(Bear in mind that, with a new presidential administration, it’s almost certain that funding for cloning-based stem cell research is all that will be left to distinguish CIRM's portfolio from that of the federal government.)

It can be difficult to see the public funding of stem cell research for what it is: An appropriate use of taxpayer dollars that has popular support in California, but that must be balanced against both changing understanding of the research's potential and other funding priorities.

Considering an analogy to a better-known domain can be illuminating. Imagine the response if the appointed head of California’s Department of Transportation was also the leader of a highway-building advocacy group that issued statements praising the department head, attacked his or her political opponents, raised funds for allies, spread misinformation about the benefits of highways, and compiled arguments against mass transit and bicycling.

It wouldn't "pass the smell test" for a moment, and this shouldn't either. 

Goodman on "The Globalization of Baby-Making"

Posted by Marcy Darnovsky on April 11th, 2008

Ellen Goodman


In today's Boston Globe, Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist Ellen Goodman gives voice to unease about pregnancy outsourcing, based on concerns about social and reproductive justice.

Goodman acknowledges the desires and needs that surrogacy addresses:

I don't make light of infertility. The primal desire to have a child underlies this multinational Creation Inc. On one side, couples who choose surrogacy want a baby with at least half their own genes. On the other side, surrogate mothers, who are rarely implanted with their own eggs any longer, can believe that the child they bear and deliver is not really theirs.

But, she goes on,

Nevertheless, there is - and there should be - something uncomfortable about a free-market approach to baby-making. It's easier to accept surrogacy when it's a gift from one woman to another. But we rarely see a rich woman become a surrogate for a poor family. Indeed, in Third World countries, some women sign these contracts with a fingerprint because they are illiterate…

It's the commercialism that is troubling. Some things we cannot sell no matter how good "the deal." We cannot, for example, sell ourselves into slavery. We cannot sell our children. But the surrogacy business comes perilously close to both of these. And international surrogacy tips the scales.

So, these borders we are crossing are not just geographic ones. They are ethical ones. Today the global economy sends everyone in search of the cheaper deal as if that were the single common good. But in the biological search, humanity is sacrificed to the economy and the person becomes the product. And, step by step, we come to a stunning place in our ancient creation story. It's called the marketplace.

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